22 Apr
by Joey Grable

Which is best for interior design and custom tile projects?

Defining Ceramic Tile and Porcelain Tile

Ceramic (non-porcelain) tiles are thin slabs of red or white clay, in the form of shale, gypsum or sand, converted into a material known as bisque. This bisque is given the shape of tiles and hardened, through the process of firing, in a kiln with averaging temperatures of 2100 degrees F. Since ceramic tiles are porous in nature, they are often coated with glaze.

Porcelain is made by pressing porcelain clays and baking at a higher temperature in the kiln than ceramics, averaging 2350 degrees F. The tile is dense, impervious, fine grained, and smooth with a sharply formed face.

The Differences Between the Two

Color & Composition

Ceramic tiles are prone to wear and to chipping or cracking on forceful impact. The glaze on the tile does not go all the way through, so the core becomes obvious if the tile is chipped. For this reason, ceramic tiles are suitable for light to moderate traffic.

On the other hand, porcelain tile color may run consistently through the body of the tile (full-body) to minimize the appearance of chipping. Glazed porcelain tiles are much harder and have more wear- and damage-resistance than ceramic tiles, making them suitable for any residential and light commercial application.

PEI Rating

Porcelain Enamel Institute (PEI) ratings are given to ceramic and porcelain tile. There are six class ratings (0 to 5), altogether, which indicate how hard and impervious a tile is. A PEI Class 0 rating suggests a tile is delicate and not suitable for any foot traffic, while a PEI Class 5 rating indicates a tile is very durable and suitable for high foot traffic in commercial areas or perhaps even outdoor use.

Most ceramic tiles receive a PEI class rating of 0 to 3, while most porcelain tiles receive a class rating of 4 or 5.

Water Absorption

Porcelain tile has a water absorption rate of 0.5% as defined by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). This is tested by first, weighing fired tile. Then it is boiled for 5 hours and let to sit in water for 24 hours. Finally, it is weighed again. If the tile weighs less than half of one-percent more as a result of water absorbing into its surface, it is considered porcelain. Anything above .5% is ceramic, not porcelain. Glazing also results in a porcelain tile usually has a much lower water absorption rate than ceramic tiles, making them more frost resistant.

Which should I buy for my next custom tile project?

The quick answer is it depends on several factors surrounding your project. Key questions to ask yourself include: where it this tile going (wall or floor)? Will the surface be functional or decorative? Is the location of a high-volume traffic area? Is there any water source near the tile surface (outside rain or indoor faucet)?

Ceramic and porcelain tiles can be any color and even made to look like other materials, such as wood or natural stone. However, the design on a porcelain tile is more likely to withstand damage, as porcelain tile design goes throughout the entire tile.

It is important to note that all porcelain is ceramic but not all ceramic is porcelain. Specifically, porcelain is ceramic that has lower water absorption due to a denser body, therefore, it is ideally suited for outdoor installations.

Not only is porcelain tile denser than ceramic tile, but due to its through-body composition, it is considered more durable and better suited for heavy usage than ceramic tile. While both porcelain and ceramic are fired, porcelain is fired at higher temperatures for a longer time than ceramic. Porcelain clays are denser and thus less porous than ceramic clays. This makes porcelain tile harder and more impervious to moisture than ceramic tile.

Our La Moda wall tile is a great example of a ceramic tile that will add energy to your next backsplash.

lamoda tressed room

Toreno ceramic tile is made for both floor and wall applications and holds up well with interior usage.

Toreno ceramic tile is made for both floor and wall applications and holds up well with interior usage.

The Mallorca porcelain tile has a multitude of geometric and floral patterns available to liven up any indoor and outdoor space.

CT9770BI18984 FIORELLA15X15APE FIORELLA SZ1

Or try our Irish Weave porcelain tile for a more modern contemporary look with clean colors ranging from charcoal to pewter.

irishweave natural room

Sources:

15 Apr
by Joey Grable

What is Porcelain Tile?

How is Porcelain Tile Made?

Porcelain tile has a very similar manufacturing process to ceramic. First slabs of colored clay are cleaned and mixed into a bisque. After which, the bisque is formed into a desired shape, fired at a low temperature first to clean the formed bisque, and then coated in a glaze. Finally, the glazed bisque is fired one last time at temperatures averaging 2350 degrees fahrenheit.

2019 04 13 porcelain production process

Porcelain Tile Usage

Porcelain tile is dense, impervious, fine grained, and smooth with a sharply formed face. The color may run consistent through the body of the tile (full-body) to minimize the appearance of chipping. Glazed porcelain tiles are much harder and have more wear- and damage-resistance than ceramic tiles, making them suitable for any residential and light commercial application.

Our Mountainside and Carrara Elite  porcelain tile are excellent examples of porcelain tile applications for high traffic areas. They both are made of impervious porcelain and have a higher PEI rating of IV—the second highest. Mountainside comes in a 12”x24” in. maximum size making it a great floor tile in residential applications. The Carrara Elite comes in sizes upwards of 24”x48” making it useful for commercial applications.

2019 04 15 mountainside graphite room
Mountainside porcelain tile

2019 04 15 carraraelite natural room
Carrara Elite porcelain tile

Glazing also results in a porcelain tile usually having a much lower water absorption rate than ceramic tiles, making them more frost resistant and a perfect accent for exterior and interior uses. Our Spanish made Mallorca porcelain tile in geometric and floral glazing options will add dynamism and energy to any bathroom or kitchen floor.

2019 04 15 mallorca prism room
Mallorca

Additional Tile Education Resources

To learn more in-depth about ceramic, porcelain, and their unique differences and applications, read through our Surface Art Tile Education page. In our last blog post we wrote about ceramic tile.

08 Apr
by Joey Grable
Surface Art Inc. talks about how ceramic tile is made and its unique qualities and features

What is Ceramic Tile?

How is Ceramic Tile Made?

Take yourself back to the early days of civilization in Europe. Fine craftsmen worked tirelessly for Roman elite, pulverizing and grinding stones into finely powdered clay. This clay was then filtered to remove the impurities. Once cleaned the clay was mixed with liquid to make a bisque. After that, the thick clay-bisque mixture was pressed into a specified tile shape, hardened by firing the tiles in a kiln and often glazed with a unique color and texture.

Today’s manufacturing process for ceramic tile is strikingly similar; the primary difference being vast improvements in quality control, increase in style variety, and more rapid means of production.

Traditionally, ceramic tiles are thin slabs of red or white colored clay made from many types of rocks--shale, gypsum or sand are commonly sourced. The bisque is then formed into its shape, where next the tile is coated with a glaze and fired in a kiln at averaging temperatures of 2100 degrees F.

Ceramic Tile Usage

Ceramic tiles are suitable for light to moderate traffic. Ceramic tiles are prone to wear and to chipping or cracking on forceful impact because they are porous by nature and less dense in their core. Additionally, the glaze on the tile does not go all the way through, so the core becomes obvious if the tile surface is chipped. One advantage to ceramic tile is their mass array of glaze styles, colors, and textures. All of which are produced at a fraction of the cost for natural stone or porcelain tile.

In conclusion, ceramic tile is perfect for decorative applications on the wall or on counter-top surfaces with moderate to low usage. The multitude of ceramic glaze style makes it ideal for this application. Ceramic tile may also be used as a floor tile, too. However, ceramic is best suited for low-impact and water-free areas of your home.

SAI Victoria White.jpg 
Victoria, ceramic wall tile. 

Cancun Noce Variation low-res-edited.jpg
Cancun, high-density ceramic floor tile with a marbled look.

Additional Tile Education Resources

To learn more in-depth about ceramic, porcelain, and their unique differences and applications, read through our Surface Art Tile Education page. We have a more detailed article about the differences between ceramic and porcelain here.

06 Nov
by Courtney Larson

Our 5,000+ products need a place to go! That is why Surface Art invested in brand new racking for our new facility. Who says a warehouse can't be pretty???